Endocrinology can be defined as the branch of medical study concerned with endocrine glands. The endocrine glands, which constitute the endocrine system of our body, produces hormones to control/regulate the important functions of the body, including metabolism, growth and development, and reproduction. For example, ovaries in women secrete oestrogen and progesterone that regulate the menstrual cycle; pituitary gland releases hGH (human growth hormone) and somatotropin, which are responsible for growth in children.
Endocrine system works in close coordination with the nervous system—the brain sends signals to endocrine glands to produce hormones as per the body’s requirements through hypothalamus (situated right above the pituitary gland, also known as the master gland). This is a continuous process, called homeostasis, of regulating the hormonal levels of your body.
Prominent endocrine glands in the body include thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, ovaries/testes, and thymus along with pituitary glands. Hormones secreted by the endocrine glands are transported to different organs through the bloodstream. If the endocrine system is not working properly—hormones produced by endocrine glands are either not enough or too much—you may develop diseases (for example, abnormal thyroid). To diagnose such illnesses, you need an endocrinology consultation.