Breast cancer develops when healthy cells inside the breast mutate and grow out of control, generating a lump of cells called a breast tumour. A tumour may be non-cancerous (benign) or cancerous (malignant). A cancerous tumour’s capacity to grow and spread to various body parts is referred as malignancy. A tumour is called benign if it does not spread. The breast cancer stage indicates the extent of the breast tumour growth and whether or not it has progressed to different body parts. Breast cancer that advances through the vascular system as well as lymph nodes to places like the lungs, bones, brain, and liver is referred to as the most aggressive form of breast cancer, also known as stage 4 breast cancer. Both invasive and non-invasive are different types of breast cancer. Breast cancer, which has expanded to nearby tissues, is said to be invasive. Non-invasive breast cancer does not progress (spread) further from milk ducts as well as lobules in the breast.
- Types of invasive (severe) breast cancer
- Types of non-invasive (less severe) breast cancer
- Types based on cancer’s hormones or genes
Types of invasive (severe) breast cancer
The majority of breast tumours (cancer) are invasive, which means the disease can move from the primary site to the neighbouring breast tissue, adjacent lymph nodes, as well as other parts of the body.
Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) – Invasive ductal carcinoma remains the most commonly seen breast cancer, contributing to 70%–80% of all occurrences. It begins in the milk duct and spreads to other breast tissues. Milk ducts are the passages inside the breast that bring milk to both nipples. It may eventually expand farther, or metastatically, to other body regions.
Invasive ductal carcinoma has different subclasses.
Medullary carcinoma – The reason why this subtype of invasive breast cancer is called medullary is thar it resembles the medulla, a region of the brain. This kind of breast cancer makes up less than 5% of occurrences.
Papillary carcinoma – Papules, which resemble finger-like development, emerge from such cancer cells, giving them the name ‘papillary’. Older women are more vulnerable to being affected by this type of breast cancer than younger women.
Tubular carcinoma – This type makes up between 1% and 2% of invasive breast cancers, and it normally develops slowly and is treatable.
Mucinous carcinoma – Mucus, the sticky material that prevents your tissues as well as internal organs from drying, contains mucin. There is a lot of mucin surrounding the breast tumours in this kind of breast cancer.
Cribriform carcinoma – This uncommon kind of breast cancer features a distinctive pattern of pores between the malignant cells.
Invasive lobular carcinoma – The 2nd most prevalent kind of breast cancer is invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), which makes up between 5% and 10% of all breast cancer cases. Adjacent breast tissue is first affected by ILC, which originates inside the lobules (milk production site). This cancer is more difficult to find using mammograms and other tests. Both breasts are afflicted by ILC in one out of every five women.
Inflammatory Breast Cancer – Less than 5% of breast cancer can be categorised under this unusual kind. Your breast’s lymphatic channels are blocked by cancerous cells. The skin thickens, turns red, and swells as a result of this. Your breasts may have areas that resemble orange skin. Inflammatory breast cancer has a tendency to progress rapidly.
Phyllodes tumours – Phyllodes tumours are uncommon and develop in the breast’s connective tissues. Even though it can impact individuals of any age, this form of tumour affects mainly women in their 40s.
Angiosarcoma – The lymphatic and blood vessel linings are where this cancer spreads. Inside the skin, liver, breast and spleen, angiosarcomas can develop. Those over the age of 70 years are highly likely to be affected by this type of breast cancer.
Paget’s disease – It is a considerably rare type of breast cancer. Nipple as well as areola skin might be scaly, red, and irritating.
Types of non-invasive (less severe) breast cancer
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) – A lump that develops inside a milk duct, which transports milk from lobules to the nipple, is the origin of DCIS. The likelihood that the tumour will eventually penetrate the ductal barriers and enter the breast’s nearby fat, as well as tissue, increases with time. However, thanks to improvements in diagnosis and therapy, the majority of women with DCIS get better with therapy.
Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) – Although it affects the breast, an LCIS is not primarily a type of cancer. The lobules that manufacture breast milk are placed throughout the breast in tons of small groups. These lobules might develop cancerous-looking cells, which usually don’t spread. Invasive breast cancer is, however, more likely to develop if you have LCIS.
Types based on cancer’s hormones or genes
Your physician will run tests on your cancer cells after a breast cancer diagnosis to evaluate if they express specific genes or whether they respond to hormones like oestrogen or progesterone in terms of growth.
Hormone-receptor status – The presence of particular proteins that serve as receptors for the oestrogen and progesterone hormones within cells of breast cancer is referred to as hormone receptor status. Breast cancer cells extracted at the time of biopsy or surgery are tested to establish their hormone-receptor status.
HER2-positive – The presence or absence of the growth-promoting protein HER2 inside the cancer cells determines whether breast cancer is HER2-positive or HER2-negative. This protein promotes the development of cancerous cells. Breast cancers that are HER2-positive are more likely to spread than other forms.
Triple-negative breast cancer – Progesterone, oestrogen, and HER2 receptors are missing in triple-negative breast cancer. This makes treatment considerably difficult.
What are the common types of breast cancer?
DCIS (ductal carcinoma in situ), IDC (invasive ductal carcinoma), LCIS (lobular carcinoma in situ), and ILC (invasive lobular carcinoma) are some common types of breast cancer.
Which is the most common type of breast cancer?
The most common type of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma.
What is the most curable type of breast cancer?
Ductal carcinoma in situ, also known as stage 0 cancer, is the most curable type of breast cancer.
Which breast cancer is not curable?
Once the metastatic breast cancer has progressed to different body parts, it is not possible to cure cancer completely.