Diabetes Medicine

Diabetes is a condition that impacts the utilisation of glucose (blood sugar) by a body. Glucose is the primary source of energy in your body, and insulin, a hormone, aids in the transport of glucose from the blood to your cells.


If you suffer from diabetes, your body cannot produce insulin at all, your body cannot produce an adequate amount of insulin, or your body cannot utilise insulin effectively. Due to this, glucose cannot enter your cells as fast as it should. This glucose accumulates in your blood, resulting in its abnormal high levels in the blood. This can cause serious health problems, including nerve damage, heart disease, impaired vision, and kidney problems. Diabetes tests are utilised to determine whether you have diabetes or you are at risk of developing this condition by measuring glucose levels in your blood or urine.

A variety of treatments are available to assist you in managing and treating diabetes. Everyone is unique; your treatment will differ depending on your specific needs. Monitoring of blood sugar levels, oral medications, and insulin administration may all be a part of your treatment regime, depending on the type of diabetes you have. Maintaining a healthy weight, engaging in regular physical activity, and consuming a healthy diet are some important components of diabetes management.


Who needs medicine for diabetes?

If you are an individual who have type 1 diabetes, you must take a diabetes medicine called insulin to control your blood sugar or glucose levels.
Some individuals who have type 2 diabetes can regulate their blood sugar levels through healthy eating and physical activity; however, physical activity and a diabetic meal plan may not be sufficient for some patients. Such patients must consider taking diabetes medication.


The type of medication you take depends on your diabetes type, your daily schedule, your medication costs, and any other medical conditions you might have. Over time, more than one diabetes medication may be required to control your diabetes.


Diabetes medications for type 1 and type 2

Insulin pumps or insulin injections, carbohydrate counting, and frequent blood glucose checks are all included in diabetes type 1 treatment. Pancreas transplant or islet cell transplant may be an option for some people with type 1 diabetes.
Treatment for diabetes type 2 primarily includes lifestyle changes, blood glucose monitoring, and the use of oral diabetes medications, insulin, or both.
Let us discuss a few of the medications used to treat diabetes.



Mainly, individuals with diabetes type 1 require insulin to live. Moreover, individuals with diabetes type 2 and gestational diabetes may also require insulin treatment.
Various types of insulin are available, which include regular (short-acting), rapid-acting, long-acting, and intermediate insulin. Your practitioner may prescribe or recommend a combination of insulin types depending on your requirements during the day and at the night.


Insulin cannot be given orally (by mouth) to lower blood glucose levels because the enzymes of the stomach impair its action. Insulin is typically injected with a syringe and a fine needle or an insulin pen, which looks similar to an ink pen.


Another option is an insulin pump. This is a small device, as small as a mobile, that is required to be worn on the outside of your body. This device includes a tube that links the insulin reservoir with a tube or catheter inserted beneath your skin in your abdomen. A glucose monitor is placed on the left of this device; this monitor helps measure blood glucose levels every couple of minutes by using a sensor implanted underneath the skin. An insulin pump is required to be worn outside of the body and has a tube that attaches the insulin reservoir to a tube inserted underneath the abdomen skin. The pumps are placed in such a way that they deliver a particular quantity of insulin constantly and along with food.


Oral or injectable medications

Your doctor may occasionally prescribe other injectable or oral medications.
To lower blood glucose levels, each type of medication uses a different mechanism of action. A particular medication may work by:
• increasing insulin production, and thereby, getting pancreas to release insulin
• lowering the ability of the liver to produce and release glucose, thus requiring less amount of insulin to transport glucose into your cells,
• inhibiting the activity of the enzymes present in the intestine that break carbohydrates, thereby slowing the rate at which cells absorb carbohydrates and improving insulin sensitivity in cells. Metformin (Fortamet, Glumetza) is typically the first-line drug for diabetes type 2 patients,
• restricting the ability of the kidneys to reabsorb filtered glucose, thus increasing the amount of glucose excreted in urine. For example, SGLT2 inhibitors (e.g., canagliflozin and empagliflozin),
• slowing the rate at which food passes through the stomach.
Each medicine class has more than one medication. A few of these medicines are taken orally, while others need to be administered as a shot.


Treatment for all types of diabetes: lifestyle modification

Living a healthy lifestyle through a healthy exercise and diet plan is a crucial component of controlling diabetes and your overall health. Some ways to manage and treat diabetes are presented here:


• Eating right

You should eat more vegetables and fruit, whole grains, and lean proteins, as these foods are high in nutritional value and fibre content while being low in calories and fat. You should also reduce your consumption of hydrogenated (saturated) fats, refined carbohydrates, and sugar. Such a meal plan, in fact, is the best plan for the whole family. Sugary foods can be consumed on occasion. They must be considered in your diet plan.
Understanding what should be eaten and how much should be eaten can be difficult. A dietitian can help you come up with a diet plan that is customised to your specific health goals, food choices, and lifestyle. Carbohydrate counting is common, especially if you have diabetes type 1 or use insulin as a treatment.


• Physical exercise

Everyone requires regular exercise, including those suffering from diabetes. Physical activity helps move the blood glucose from the bloodstream towards the cells to be utilised as energy, thereby reducing blood sugar levels. Physical activity also increases insulin sensitivity. As a result, your body requires less amount of insulin to distribute glucose to your cells.

Obtain a heads-up from your doctor to exercise. Then, pick out activities you enjoy, for example, swimming, walking, or cycling. The most important thing is to inculcate physical activity into your daily practice.


Target for a minimum of 30 minutes of medium-intensity exercise for 5 to 6 days a week, or 150 minutes of medium intensity activity per week. If you have not been exercising in a while, begin increasing your activity level slowly and steadily. Sitting in one place for extended periods of time should also be avoided. If you have been seated for more than 30 minutes, attempt to get up and move.



Are there any medicines for diabetes?

Yes, there are many medicines available for diabetes, but which one to consume depends on your type of diabetes, its severity, and other risk factors.

Do we require doctors’ prescriptions for diabetes tablets?

Yes, diabetes medication is a prescription medicine. Your doctor will prescribe medicine for diabetes as per your blood sugar levels, lifestyle, eating habits, and associated risk factors.

How much do the diabetes tablets cost?

All diabetes medications have different prices depending on the medicine's molecule and the pharmaceutical company that manufactured it.

For how long should one take sugar medicine?

Diabetes is a chronic condition that usually requires lifelong treatment. Most of the medicines available on the market are safe for long-term use; however, in certain cases of diabetes, just the right diet and regular physical activity have helped keep the condition under control.

Who should take medicine for diabetes?

Diabetes medicines or tablets may be prescribed by a doctor to individuals who are unable to maintain a healthy diet and regular exercise to keep their blood sugar levels under control.

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