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PCOS, also known as polycystic ovarian syndrome, is an endocrine system disorder in women. It is associated with a range of reproductive health related symptoms in women. One in every five to six females experiences serious issues related to infertility and irregularity in their menstrual periods. The complications might lead to serious complication. The most common causes of PCOS & PCOD problem in females can be traced back to some factors such as stress, obesity, and fluctuations in hormonal levels.
PCOS is a diverse ailment associated with an endocrine reproductive disorder that affects females. It primarily affects women between the ages of 18 and 44. The chronic hormonal imbalance causes complications in the form of many cysts and an irregular period, which result in infertility in females. The origin of PCOS is uncertain, but studies indicate that genes do play a role.
Other factors that contribute to PCOS include:
Increased male hormone levels: Elevated androgen levels inhibit the ovaries’ ability to release eggs (ovulation), resulting in irregular menstrual cycles.
Irregularity in ovulation may lead to the formation of tiny, fluid-filled sacs in the ovaries. Acne and excessive hair growth are also symptoms of high androgen levels in women.
Insulin resistance: The symptom occurs when insulin levels rise; thus, the ovaries produce and release androgens, which are male hormones. An increase in the male hormone suppresses ovulation and contributes to other PCOS symptoms.
Insulin aids your body’s digestion and utilisation of glucose (sugar). Insulin resistance occurs when your body does not properly process insulin, resulting in high glucose amounts in the blood. Every individuals having resistance to insulin does not develop high blood sugar or diabetes.
However, insulin resistance could induce diabetes. Insulin resistance is influenced by lifestyle factors, such as obesity due to diet or inactivity. However, insulin resistance can also be triggered by genetic causes and can affect women of all body weights.
In most women, PCOS causes those with an unhealthy weight to have insulin resistance. It is one of the primary symptoms of PCOS. However, it is essential to understand that there are strategies to reduce the symptoms.
Obesity: Obesity may be one of the PCOS symptoms and causes. Insulin is a hormone that assists in converting the sugars and carbohydrates included in meals into usable energy. PCOS makes it more difficult for the body to use insulin.
This disorder known as insulin resistance, can lead to an increase in the amount of insulin and sugar (glucose) in the bloodstream. The elevated amount of insulin enhances the production of androgen, which are male hormones.
Excessive amounts of androgen can cause symptoms such as increased acne, body hair growth, irregular menstrual periods, and weight gain. Because male hormones lead to weight increase, it most commonly occurs in the abdominal region.
The fat stored in the abdomen is also linked to an increased risk of heart disease and other health concerns.
Inflammation: Inflammation may be one of the polycystic ovary syndrome causes. Individuals with PCOS are prone to long term inflammation (low-grade). Blood tests can be performed by your healthcare practitioner to detect levels of white blood cells and C-reactive protein (CRP), which can suggest the inflammation levels in the body.
Research studies have found a significant relationship between PCOS and persistent, low-grade inflammation. Individuals with PCOS are more likely to have blood indicators that indicate this form of inflammation.
It is a complicated process that starts with your immune system and eventually the polycystic ovaries cause the production of androgens. The purpose of inflammation is to protect the body while it heals, but chronic (long-lasting) inflammation can cause many issues.
Heredity: It is difficult to determine if PCOS is hereditary, but it is a possibility that could stem from the foetus’ intrauterine environment. It is uncertain what lead to PCOS, but it is a combination of genetics and environment.
PCOS is caused by many factors, including genes as well as a mix of environmental and lifestyle factors like pollution, exercise, and diet. While PCOS does not have a distinct genetic pattern, there can be a family association.
Also, up to 40 per cent of persons with PCOS have a family member with the condition, like a parent or a sibling. Gene variants likely to trigger PCOS lead to high androgen levels like testosterone in the ovary. Also, the genetic variations that impede the hormones, cause inflammation, and disrupt the production and regulation of insulin also trigger PCOS.
Do all women with PCOS have polycystic ovaries?
The presence of tiny cysts in the ovaries is a symptom, not a cause, of polycystic ovary syndrome. Even though they can contribute to hormone abnormalities, cysts are mostly harmless. PCOS cysts differ from ovarian cysts that grow, rupture, and cause discomfort.
What exactly causes PCOS? Scientists and clinicians refer to PCOS as a “syndrome” and not a “disease” because experts cannot establish its cause and how it manifests itself in different patients.
What scientists know is that PCOS is caused by a complex interplay between the insulin, androgens, ovaries, and other hormones, including those at the brain level. High levels of chronic inflammation are present in most people who have PCOS.
Chronic inflammation and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are associated with many possible consequences, like type 2 diabetes and obesity. Research indicates that people with PCOS may also be at an increased risk of acquiring abnormal lipid levels.
Most women with PCOS can experience a degree of increased cholesterol and triglyceride levels due to their condition. Modifications to your way of life that help bring down the inflammation in your body can help you better manage the symptoms of PCOS and cut your risk of problems.