Diabetes testing helps to find out diabetes quickly and allows doctors to help control the diabetes of their patients and prevent complications. Diabetes tests are simple, and usually give results quickly. Testing also provides health care professionals to find prediabetes. Type 2 diabetes tests are easier for doctors.
A doctor is able to find the condition in earlier stages by performing various medical tests. These tests can find different forms of diabetes i.e. type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. People having diabetes symptoms should be tested for the disease. Some people do not have any symptoms but have risk factors for diabetes and need to be tested.
Types of Tests for Diabetes
Your doctor will have you take many types of diabetes tests. Here are the following tests for diabetes:
- A1C Test: Over the past 2 or 3 months, the A1C test checks your average blood sugar level. An A1C is normal when below 5.7%, between 5.7 and 6.4% shows you have prediabetes, and 6.5% or higher shows you have diabetes.
- Fasting Blood Sugar Test: This checks your blood sugar after an overnight fast (not eating). A fasting blood sugar level is normal when below 99 mg/dL, 100 to 125 mg/dL shows you have prediabetes, and 126 mg/dL or higher shows you have diabetes.
- Glucose Tolerance Test: Before and after you drink a liquid this checks your blood sugar that contains glucose. Before the test, you’ll fast (not eat) overnight and have your blood drawn to control your fasting blood sugar level. Then after 1 hour, 2 hours, and possibly 3 hours you’ll drink the liquid and check your blood sugar level. A blood sugar level of 140 mg/dL or lower is viewed as normal at 2 hours, 140 to 199 mg/dL shows you have prediabetes, and 200 mg/dL or higher shows you have diabetes.
- Random Blood Sugar Test: At the time you’re tested this checks your blood sugar. At any time you can take this test and don’t require to fast (not eat) first. A blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL or higher shows you have diabetes.
Your blood may also be tested for autoantibodies (substances that show your body is attacking itself) if your doctor considers you to have type 1 diabetes, which is usually shown in type 1 diabetes but not in type 2 diabetes. You may check your urine tested for ketones (produced when your body burns fat for energy), which also shows type 1 diabetes instead of type 2 diabetes.
Tests for Gestational Diabetes
Gestational diabetes is determined using blood tests. Probably between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy you’ll be tested. Your doctor may test you earlier if your risk is higher for getting gestational diabetes (due to having more risk factors). In your pregnancy blood sugar that’s higher than normal may show you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes rather than gestational diabetes.
- Glucose Screening Test: At the time you’re tested this checks your blood sugar. Glucose is produced when you drink a liquid, and your blood will be needed to check your blood sugar level 1 hour later. A test result is normal when 140 mg/dL or lower. You’ll need to take a glucose tolerance test if your level is higher than 140 mg/dL.
- Glucose Tolerance Test: Before and after you drink a liquid this checks your blood sugar that contains glucose. Before the test, you’ll fast (not eat) overnight and have your blood drawn to consider your fasting blood sugar level. After 1 hour, 2 hours, and possibly 3 hours you’ll drink the liquid and check your blood sugar level afterward. Depending on the size of the glucose drink results can be different depending on how often your blood sugar is tested. Ask your doctor what your test results show.
Home Tests For Diabetes
Possibly some tests for people who can carry out themselves at home. These include:
- Blood sugar testing: Home testing kits can check blood sugar. The specific elements of the kits vary, but most include:
- lancets for pricking the finger
- Collect the blood by test strips
- A glucometer can check the sample and gives a reading
A doctor will control a person’s target blood sugar levels, and they will explain their results which show the need for medical attention.
- Urine ketone testing: For the presence of ketones, a different type of home test checks the urine, which the body makes by breaking down fats for energy. Ketones usually show that the body has too little insulin.
Most pharmacies provide these kits. This test includes collecting a urine sample, then adding the provided strips into the urine. These will show the presence of ketones.
A person should usually seek medical attention if ketone levels are moderate or high.
A professional doctor of diabetes can suggest more information about the tests and their purposes. Most blood tests, whereas a urine ketone test can also show whether the body has enough insulin. Talk with your doctor about a detailed treatment plan if your test results show you have type 1, type 2, or gestational diabetes.