Urine analysis (UA) or urine test is a common lab test that helps your doctors to check various health issues by analyzing your urine or pee. Any underlying diseases of the liver, kidneys, lungs, skin, and bladder may affect the appearance, concentration, and content of your urine. Urine analysis is a test that is performed to monitor certain health problems and to diagnose urinary tract infections.
The cost of urinalysis or urine routine test is Rs. 100-Rs.300. The price may vary depending on your location.
|is Also known as||Urine Analysis, Urine test|
|Urinalysis test includes||Color and appearance, chemical findings, and microscopic findings|
|Preparation||Drink plenty of water to give an adequate urine sample|
|Reporting||Within 72 hrs|
|Test price||The price of this test may range from Rs. 100 to Rs. 300 depending upon the location|
|Also included in||Health Insurance Plans|
|Related tests||Kidney Function Test, Liver Function Test, Complete Blood Test|
What is Urinalysis?
A urinalysis is a type of laboratory test that scrutinizes the visual, chemical, and microscopic aspects of your urine (pee). Basically, it detects the overall composition of urine that may reveal the underlying causes of certain health disorders. This test comprises a group of tests that detect and measure several components that pass through your urine by using your sample.
Types of Urine Tests
Your physician may incorporate different tests into a urinalysis. Based on your symptoms, the severity of the disease, existing health issues, etc., your healthcare provider will decide which urine tests you need to do for urinalysis.
A lab technician used to do urinalysis the following broad aspects
- Color and appearance
- Chemical findings
- Microscopic findings
Urine Color and Appearance
For this test, an expert healthcare provider examines how the urine sample looks to the “naked eye.” They check whether the sample is clear or cloudy or its pale, dark yellow, or another color.
The normal color of urine is some shades of yellow and can range from colorless or pale yellow. Certain things including medications and supplements may affect the color of your urine. In case of any abnormalities or underlying diseases, the color of urine is changed. Red-colored urine can happen when blood is present in your urine or there may be some damage to your urinary tract system.
Some substances like red blood cells, white blood cells, and bacteria, and several healthcare conditions like dehydration, Urinary tract infection (UTI), Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), kidney stones, and diabetes make your urine cloudy.
To detect chemical findings, a technician uses special test strips called dipsticks to test for certain chemical parameters in the urine sample. These strips change color when they touch some specific substances.
Common types of tests that a technician performs with a dipstick are,
- Protein Urine Test: This test measures the presence of proteins (albumin) in your urine. High protein level indicates several different health conditions like heart failure, kidney issues, and dehydration.
- Urine pH Level Test: A urine pH test decides the pH level in your urine. A high urine pH may indicate conditions including kidney issues and a urinary tract infection (UTI). A low urine pH may indicate conditions including diabetic ketoacidosis and diarrhea.
- Ketones Urine Test: This test is performed to check whether you have diabetic ketoacidosis or not.
- Glucose Urine Test: This test measures the amount of sugar (glucose) in your urine. If glucose is present, then this could be a sign of diabetes or gestational diabetes.
- Bilirubin Urine Test: If bilirubin is present in your urine, then it may indicate liver or bile duct issues.
- Nitrite Urine Test: A positive nitrite test indicates the sign of a urinary tract infection (UTI). But not all bacteria can convert nitrate (a substance that’s normally in your urine) to nitrite, this means you can still have a UTI despite a negative nitrite test.
- Leukocyte Esterase Urine Test: Leukocyte esterase is commonly found in white blood cells. If this test is positive, then it indicates there is an inflammation in your urinary tract or kidneys.
- Urine Specific Gravity Test: This test portrays the concentration of all chemical particles in your urine.
Urine Microscopic Findings
This test is performed to look for tiny substances including cells, cell fragments, urinary casts, Mucus, bacteria or other germs.
- RBC Urine Test: An increased number of RBCs indicates that there is blood in your urine. If the levels are higher than normal, then this may indicate bladder, kidney or urinary tract issues.
- White Blood Cell (WBC) Urine Test: An enhanced number of WBCs may indicate an infection or inflammation somewhere in your urinary tract.
- Epithelial Cells: An elevated number of epithelial cells may indicate infection, inflammation and/or cancer in your urinary tract. The epithelial cells in the urine normal range are 1-5 squamous epithelial cells per high power field.
- Bacteria, Yeast and Parasites: Bacteria may enter your urethra and urinary tract and can cause a urinary tract infection (UTI). Sometimes, yeast may contaminate the sample for people who are suffering from vaginal yeast infection. Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasite that may also be found in the urine of people and this is called an STI (trichomoniasis).
- Urinary Casts: Casts are tiny tube-like substances that may present in your urine. Certain types of casts may indicate kidney issues, but others are normal.
How do you prepare for a urinalysis?
You should drink plenty of fluids so that there is an adequate urine sample. Your healthcare provider will tell whether you need to give the first-morning pee as the sample or not. Certain medications may affect the results of your test. If you are taking any medications, inform your doctor before taking the test. If your menstruation cycle is going, then inform your lab technician before collecting the sample.
What should you expect during a urinalysis?
Most labs or hospitals use the “clean-catch” method to collect urine samples from your genitals. The technician will give you a specimen cup where you need to collect your urine sample. First, urinate a small amount in the toilet and then, hold the specimen cup just a few inches from your urethra to collect the sample. Wash your hands with soap and water before collecting the sample.
Why do I need urinalysis?
Your doctor will recommend this test to check whether you have one or more of the following reasons:
1. A routine exam is needed to screen for early signs of certain health conditions
2. If you are suffering from some symptoms of diseases like diabetes or kidney
3. To diagnose a urinary tract infection (UTI)
4. If you are admitted to a hospital
5. As a pre-check-up for surgery
What do the results of a urinalysis mean?
Urine test reports or urinalysis may have several interpretations because of multifarious tests. Abnormal urine test results that are either on the lower or higher side of the normal urine test results chart may indicate there are some medical issues. Sometimes, you may need further testing like imaging tests or blood tests to diagnose a condition.
If values are higher for the glucose or red blood cells, then this may indicate you need some medical treatments. Again, providers rarely use urinalysis tests alone to diagnose conditions. Urinalysis offers healthcare givers in the right direction toward a diagnosis.